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The dictionary of Japanese general terms is available at Online Japanese dictionary.
alternative words: Queen Himiko, Empress Himiko
keywords: china, famous person
related topics: Gishiwajinden , Nihonshoki , Yamataikoku , Empress Jingu , Yayoi period , Amaterasu
related web sites: http://www2.begin.or.jp/sakura/miya02.htm
explanation: Famous Japanese queen of the 3th century. According to an old Chinese history book, Gishiwajinden, it is her who had unified Japan from her country Yamataikoku or at least become the top representative of Japan after a great civil war. The old Japanese history book Nihonshoki affirms that Himiko should be Jingukogo, queen mother of Emperor Ojin but many histories don't agree with this thesis. She may correspond to the Japanese Sun goddess, Amaterasu.
alternative words: Gennai Hiraga
keywords: famous person, scholar, writer
related topics: Edo period , Rangaku , Edo , Tanuma Okitsugu , Ronin
related web sites: http://www.look-kagawa.com/wnn-c/wnn5/gennai.htm , http://www2u.biglobe.ne.jp/~marusan/kankopage/kanko8.htm
explanation: Born in 1729 in a low ranking samurai family of Shikoku. He followed first Dutch and medical studies (Rangaku) at Nagasaki, then went to Edo to become a botanist. Unable to follow the rigid feudal system, he became ronin but people was really surprised by his invention such as thermometers and electric devices. He was once engaged by Tanuma Okitsugu to prospect Japanese natural resources. He also wrote some Joruri plays. After having killed someone during a dispute, he died in prison in 1779.
Hishikawa Moronobu菱川師宣 師宣
alternative words: Moronobu Hishikawa, Moronobu
keywords: artist, famous person, ukiyoe
related topics: Ukiyoe , Shunga , Edo period , Kano school
related web sites: http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~sanyo/sanyo/mikaeri1.html
explanation: Ukiyoe artist of the early Edo period. Born in 1618 in Chiba prefecture. Arriving to Tokyo, he worked not only as Ukiyoe artist, but also publisher, writer and painter, because Ukiyoe being not established as an independent discipline at that time. He left many master pieces on an active life of Edo citizens like prostitutes in brothel of Yoshiwara, by breaking off from the official but dull paint schools like Kano and Tosa, so he is considered father of Ukiyoe art. He died in 1694.
alternative words: Masako Hojo
keywords: famous person, statesman
related topics: Hojoshi , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Kamakura shogunate , Gokenin
related web sites: http://www.lint.ne.jp/~meirokun/masako.htm , http://www.wbs.ne.jp/cmt/kankou/topics/97.9/izu/index.htm
explanation: Born in 1157 as a daughter of Hojo Tokimasa, a local seignior of Izu province. When she got married with Minamoto no Yoritomo who had been exiled there, her destiny changed completely because Yoritomo became later a shogun. After the death of Yoritomo in 1199, she became a nun but actively participated to Kamakura shogunate's policy decision. During Shokyu disturbance in 1221, she encouraged Gokenin to fight, so she was called Amashogun, i.e. "Nun shogun"
alternative words: Soun Hojo, Hojou Soun, Soun Hojou
keywords: famous person, war lord
related topics: Go Hojoshi , Sengoku period
related web sites: http://www.city.numazu.shizuoka.jp/c-asobou/siseki/souun/souun.htm , http://www.suzuken.mmcgi.com/sengoku/retsuden/houjyou_souun.htm
explanation: Born in 1432 with an obscure origin. His sister giving birth to a son of Imagawa Yoshitada, he became his vassal. By taking advantage of an internal conflict of Izu province, he subjugated it and became independent at the age 60. After several battles with Kanto Kanrei, Uesugi clan, he conquered Sagami province and settled his castle at Odawara. So he became the founder of an important warlord family, Gohojo shi, thanks to his meticulousness and talent to fascinate the people. He died in 1519.
alternative words: Tokimune Hojo
keywords: china, famous person
related topics: Shikken , Invasion of Mongols , Kamakura shogunate , Zen , Hojoshi
related web sites: http://www.nhk.or.jp/pr/bangumi/hojo/
explanation: Born in 1251 as the eldest son of the 5th Skikken, Tokiyori. Being too young to become himself Shikken, his oncles, Nagatoki and Masamura, became respectively 6th and 7th Shikken. After Mongols had sent an envoy in 1267, asking Japan to become their vassal state, Tokimuna became 8th Shikken in 1268 and carried out a firm policy toward them. He adhered strongly to Zen faith and built Enkakuji temple for his Zen teacher from China, Mugaku Sogen. He died in 1284.
alternative words: Hosjo-shi, Hojike, Hojo-ke, Hojo family, Hojo clan, Hojo
related topics: Kamakura shogunate , Minamoto no Yoritomo , Shikken , Hojo Tokimune , Hojo Masako
related web sites: http://www.geocities.co.jp/HeartLand-Gaien/8529/ , http://www1.plala.or.jp/kamonegi/HOUJYOU.HTML
explanation: Hojoshi is a sub branch of Heike family. They were so negligible that they didn't carry the name of Heike. But when Yoritomo had been sent to their fief of Izu as a political prisoner, their fate changed suddenly: one of their girls got married with Yoritomo, who later became Shogun. Becoming confidants of Yoritomo, after his death they seized the power of Kamakura shogunate by becoming Shikken.
alternative words: Toshiaki Honda
keywords: famous person, northern territory, scholar
related topics: Ezochi , Edo shogunate , Mogami Tokunai
explanation: Born in Niigata prefecture in 1743. He came to Tokyo at the age 18 to learn mathematics and astronomy. He opened his own school at the age 24. In 1801, he navigated to Hokkaido as captain. In 1808, he was asked to explore Ezochi by Edo shogunate but recommended his disciple, Mogami Tokunai. He wrote "Keisei Hisaku", a book where he recommended a state managed foreign trade and colonization of Ezochi to overcome an economic problem of Japan. He died in 1820.
alternative words: Holly Honen, Honen shonin, Hounen, Hounen shounin
keywords: buddhism, famous person, priest
related topics: Heian period , Jodo sect , Shinran
related web sites: http://www.chion-in.or.jp , http://www.jodo.or.jp
explanation: Born in 1133 in Okayama prefecture in a samurai family. After the killing of his father, he was sent to Enryakuji temple to study Buddhism. Unhappy with Tendai sect of Enryakuji, he retired in Kurotani monastery to study and carry our an ascetic practice. Then, he went to Kyoto and began directly preach the people. Because of a simplicity of his teaching, his sect became popular but soon it was greatly persecuted because of jealousy of other sects. Shinran is one of his disciples of the period.
alternative words: Hotei god
keywords: buddhism, god
related topics: 7 fortune gods , Zen , Bosatsu
explanation: Eccentric Zen priest of the late Tang dynasty in China. He walked around to collect offering with a huge bag while showing a big belly and slept in the snow. He was considered a reincarnation of Miroku Bosatsu and included among 18 rakan and 7 fortune gods (shichifukujin) as a god of abundance.